I suffered with occasional IBS for 40 years before my T2 hit me. I suffered it on and off after T2 started and then really badly ~5 years after starting taking Metformin. when I mean badly I mean level 7 of the bristol stool scale (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bristol_stool_scale). I eventually blamed Metformin for that chronic diarrhoea that I was having. My GP refused to take me off metformin, and only after a year of complaint changed it to MR version, which by then was too,little too late. The Metformin stopped on commencement of the Newcastle diet. The IBS stopped ~3 days later and did not return until I re-tried taking Metfromin again 2 1/2 years later. This was an unprecedented period of relief in my adult life. Metformin is metabolised to almost nothing within the body in a little over 4 days. Was Metformin really to blame. Probably! But not totally. Other facts. Now, if I take a 500mg tablet of MR Metformin I will (same day, or next morning) get a loose bowel movement. Now, if I take a 1000mg (2 tablets) of MR Metformin I will (within 3 hours) get actute diarrhoea. So, desperate to find out why, as Metformin is the best possible drug for me an Insulin resistant Type II diabetic, I ran a few thought experiments through my old grey matter. There is some background you need to know before things become clear as to what I did next and what I found out. Along with the historical IBS, I also used to get agonising migraines for 3 days at a time. At the worst point this was 3 days on 3 days off. This was eventually, self diagnosed, and self-treated by taking Liquid magnesium supplements. 2 years before onset of T2. I take 15 ml of Neways liquid food suppliments every day now. I no longer get Migraines (unless I stop the LM for a while) This is because my body does not absorb magnesium well within the lower intestine. I rationalised that absorbtion in my digestive system may be a problem across the board. So with that fact-let in mind, my though experiment went like this. What if I tinker with the way or speed metformin actually gets into my body, instead of just swallowing and hoping it works. Taking MR metformin did not work at all so the longer it takes the worse it is. So I reasoned that a faster absorption rather than the slower way with the MR version. I also reasoned that its likely that with MR the final absorbtion was taking place after passing from the stomach into the intestines, which is the place I have rouble with magnesium. So how to get the metformin sucked up by my stomach rather thatn my intestines. My option also seemed to take lots of smaller doses. Split the pills into smaller lumps. Crush the pills to powder and sprinkle on food. Crush the pills to powder and put into water and drink it. I also wanted to start low and increase the dose to the point of good effect and no bad effect. I also wanted to see the results so did a high intensity period of 7+ Blood Glucose tests per day for two weeks to eget a base line.This was without metformin. I then wanted to see the effect of the metformin kick in. I continued the high intensity period of 7+ Blood Glucose tests per day for the duration. Which is ongoing. I started off with liquidising the metformin and taking ~ 80 mg doses. This became a real headache. I modified the technique to split pills. This was sustainable and I was dosing at ~125 mg for a total of 500 mg per day spreading the dose out into 4 doses per day. For a couple of weeks. The dosing in this way did not produce any diarrhoea at all, and I was getting a benefit of a generally reduced 7 day average in blood glucose. I suspect that the effect will increase over time as metformin's cumulative effect, well, accumulates. The results wee that I can now tolerate <= 500 mg Metformin a day without ill effects again. At least for a short while. Before I did this, and before I understood the mechanisms I was consigned to diet and exercise for T2 control. This was and is an increasingly difficult way of handling T2. I knew I would be forced to return to drug therapy eventually but Metformin was off the table. I have stopped taking metformin for other reasons but now feel I have a way back to using it again armed with what I know. Now you know. I hope this experience helps someone else.