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Tests

Discussion in 'Community Submitted Guides & Links' started by broads, Feb 25, 2009.

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  1. broads

    broads · Well-Known Member

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    Here we go again. Just written message and managed to delete it.
    Would it be possible for someone far more knowledgable than me to compile a list of blood/urine tests that we may have to have to detect or track diabetes? ie.Name of test, whether blood or urine, how it's done, time taken, what the results shoud be or what they mean to us etc. It would be good to have it in simple table form that we could print out and keep with our other diabetic blurb.
     
  2. phoenix

    phoenix Type 1 · Expert

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    Here goes, I am lucky, I get copies of all by test results and have used these and the internet to compile this. I have tried to get things right but I may have made mistakes please check any interpretation with a professional. Do remember that ranges do vary between laboratories.

    HbA1c

    Gives the ‘average’ amount of glucose in the blood over a period of about 3 months but is weighted towards more recent weeks.
    (my lab ranges)
    Non diabetic < 6%, Type 1<7%, Type 2 <6.5%
    (note these figures are not the same as your self monitoring figures)
    HbA1c 6% estimated average blood glucose 7mmol
    HBA1c 7% estimated average blood glucose 8.6mmol
    See http://professional.diabetes.org/glucosecalculator.aspx
    NB
    This reporting system will be changing in the near future and results will be given in an entirely different format! See
    http://www.diabetes.nhs.uk/whats-on/dow ... eaflet.pdf

    Lipid panel
    Shows the amount of 'good' and 'bad fat in your blood
    (Cholesterol tests are fasting blood tests)
    plasma should be clear, lemon or straw coloured. Opalescent plasma is indicative of high lipids and trigs.
    (my lab ranges, others may differ slightly)
    Total cholesterol range 4.00-6.2mmol/l
    HDL ('good') cholesterol female >1.40 female post menopause and male > 1.15mmol/l
    LDL ('Bad') cholesterol (calculated according to Friedewalds formula) <3.85 (but many specialists feel eople with diabetes should be below 2.6mmol
    Cholesterol/HDL female<4.5, male <5.00
    Triglycerides 0.35- 1.70 mmol/l
     
  3. phoenix

    phoenix Type 1 · Expert

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    Kidney function Tests

    Microalbumin/Creatinine
    This test shows the number of albumin (protein) particles in the urine It is a test of kidney function. Protein in the urine is a warning sign. It may indicate kidney damage or disease or be an elevation due to an infection.

    early morning urine sample ( but may be part of a 24 hour sample)
    Microalbuminuria is defined as:
    albumin:creatinine ratio >2.5mg/mmol (men) or >3.5mg/mmol (women)
    or albumin concentration >20mg/l
    Proteinuria is defined as:
    albumin:creatinine ratio >30mg/mmol or albumin concentration >200mg/l

    Estimated GFR: Estimated glomelurelar filtration raten ( AKA Creatinine clearance)
    tests the efficiency of the kidneys
    Creatinine is a substance that is mostly excreted (only tiny amounts are reabsorbed). When the kidneys aren't working as well as they should, creatinine builds up in the blood
    Blood test according to info on web
    (though I'm also always asked for a small early morning urine sample at same time, I thought they used it so see how much was in the urine, now I'm unsure)

    Creatinine in the blood sample range 60 - 120 µmol/L (adults) (my lab range)

    EGFR is then calculated according to a formula for which your weight, gender and age are needed
    see http://www.nuh.nhs.uk/nch/antibiotics/Renal impairment/clcrcalc.asp

    Normal Threshold value for renal insufficiency 60ml/mn
    if there are other symptoms or specific problems this figure may be higher (kidney function can be reduced significantly before it becomes a problem so without other factors it is not diagnosed as chrionic kidney disease until below the 60ml/mn level)
    If the person is Afro Carribean different thresholds apply.
    Stage 1 >90 mL/min/1.73m²
    Stage 2: 60 - 89 mL/min/1.73m²
    Stage 3: 30 - 59 mL/min/1.73m²
    Stage 4: 15 - 29 mL/min/1.73m²
    Stage 5: <15mL/min/1.73m²


    Creatinine clearance 24 hr urine sample + blood test ( done less nowadays, except in hospital)
    (ranges vary beween labs)
    70 - 140 mL/min (male)
    70 - 125 mL/min (female
    (they can also test protein/albumin in this but I haven't the ranges)



    Other Blood Tests

    Creatine kinase (CK), also known as creatine phosphokinase (CPK)
    This is a test of muscle damage and can be used to see if you have had a heart attack It is also used to see if there is muscle damage that could be attributed to statins It will be very elevated)
    Range from NHS site
    40 - 215 U/L (male)
    40 - 185 U/L (female)
    Range ( my lab test results)
    female < 145 male <170)
    Exercise will also cause elevated results the doctor wasn’t concerned witha a result of 273 as I run several times a week,
    ( My last result was 273 but as I run several times a week the doc wasn’t worried)

    Potassium
    This tests the level of potassium (K) in blood.
    Hyperkalaemia (too much) can be a problem with some drugs
    • non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (such as ibuprofen); beta-blockers (such as propanolol and atenolol), angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors (such as captopril, enalapril, and lisinopril), and potassium-sparing diuretics (such as triamterene, amiloride, and spironolactone)., kidney problems
    • DKA
    Hypokalaemia (too little)
    • can be a problem with some diuretic drugs

    Range 3.5mmol/l-4.1mmo/l
    This test may have to be repeated for out of range readings since factors like how the blood was drawn and storage effect the sample
     
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