Breakfast and dinner size could affect blood glucose levels in type 2 diabetes

Wed, 25 Feb 2015
Patients with type 2 diabetes that eat a high-energy breakfast with a low-energy dinner could find it easier to control their blood sugar levels.

A study by Israeli researchers at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem found this diet adjustment could reduce the risk of complications from type 2 diabetes and improve metabolic control.

Researchers evaluated 18 patients with type 2 diabetes between the ages of 30 and 70. They all had a body mass index of 22-35 kg/m2 and were treated either with metformin or dietary advice.

One group ate a diet which included a 2,946 kilojoule (704.1 calories) breakfast, with further meals reduced in size, while the other group consumed the same energy total throughout the day, but consumed the 2,946 kilojoule meal for dinner.

Post-meal glucose levels were 20 per cent lower for the first group, while levels of C-peptide, insulin and GLP-1 were also higher. Compared to the group who ate the bigger meal at dinner, participants of the first diet experienced a 21-25 per cent reduction in blood glucose, on average, and a 23 per cent increase of insulin.

"These observations suggest that a change in meal timing influences the overall daily rhythm of post-meal insulin and incretin and results in a substantial reduction in the daily post-meal glucose levels," said study author Professor Oren Froy.

Professor Daniela Jakubowicz added that a high energy breakfast could result in post-meal glucose level reductions throughout the day. This could increase metabolic control and have the potential to prevent cardiovascular and other complications in people with type 2 diabetes.

The results of this study were published in the journal Diabetologia.
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