I'm still optimistic. I don't see Type 1 as like missing an organ or a limb. It's only a small part of the pancreas that's not working. As I said, animal studies have shown that other cells in the pancreas can produce insulin too in the right conditions. As for the immune attack, then modification of that, and activation of the other cells that can produce insulin would result in a cure. Both those things are being worked on, so it's not a pie in the sky idea. Yes, it might take some years, but it will happen, I believe. Maybe some people deal with diabetes by resigning themselves to it being a lifelong condition, but others like myself like to think of it as lifelong at the moment but with the hope of a cure on the horizon. That isn't wishful thinking. It's based on evidence. I see what the OP is saying about big pharma, but the same could be said of a cure for cancer. Huge numbers of people get cancer and large amounts of money are made in treating it. In addition, advances in curing one disease often carry across to other conditions. Fortunately, my children have avoided diabetes (so far - fingers crossed) but if they did get it, I'd be reassuring them there is hope for a cure and showing them how much work is being done on it and how many advances have been made. Our understanding grows and grows each year, and I think that and the various investigations into a cure will bear fruit in the not too distant future.