I read and surveyed the Treatment of Prediabetes article. This is a bit concerning... Conflict-of-interest statement: Ralph A DeFronzo is a member of the Bristol-Myers Squibb, Janssen, Amylin, Takeda, Novo Nordisk, and Lexicon advisory boards; has received grants from Takeda, Amylin, and Bristol-Myers Squibb; and is a member of the following speakers bureaus: Bristol-Myers Squibb, Novo Nordisk, Janssen, and Takeda. No other potential conflicts of interest relevant to this article were reported. A concern I have about most diabetes studies and articles is that they're not using the low carbohydrate high fat diet (LCHF; up to 150 g carbs) or the low carbohydrate ketogenic diet (LCKD; up to 50 g carbs) because diets that are both high carb and high fat are unhealthy and disease promoting. If you really want to dig into the science of the benefits of making lifestyle changes, both diet and exercise, I encourage you to read researchers Jeff Volek, Ph.D., R.D.'s and Stephen Phinney, M.D., Ph.D.'s two books, or listen to their presentations on YouTube. For dietary guidance and support, I encourage you to visit the Low-carb Diet Forum here... http://www.diabetes.co.uk/forum/category/low-carb-diet-forum.18/ If eating a vegetarian/vegan diet, additional guidance and support can be found on the Vegetarian Diet Forum here... http://www.diabetes.co.uk/forum/category/vegetarian-diet-forum.71/ The Diet Doctor website is gets into the "how to's" of the LCHF diet and LCKD here... https://www.dietdoctor.com/low-carb Membership is free for the first month and includes an impressive video library that includes presentations and interviews with leading diabetes experts from around the world. I have a diabetes library of 50+ books. My favorite book that provides a good overview of the what's known from research about diabetes and it's treatment is the book Blood Sugar 101: What They Don't Tell You About Diabetes, 2nd Edition (2016). Here's the chapters and appendixes: 1. What is a normal blood sugar? 2. How diabetes develops 3. What really causes diabetes? 4. Blood sugar level and organ damage 5. Must you deteriorate? 6. How to lower blood sugar 7. Making your diet work 8. Generic Diabetes Drugs 9. Patented diabetes drugs 10. Insulin 11. Supplements and healing foods 12. Exercise 13. Is it really type 2? 14. Working with doctors and hospitals A. Convert mg/dl to mmol/L B. What can you eat when you are cutting the carbs? C. Diabetes drug families It's good that you're both reading research articles and studies. I did the same when I was rediagnosed two years ago with an A1c of 9.9%. All lab work is now within or just above the normal range thanks to the LCHF diet/LCKD, thoughtfully chosen nutritional supplements, and walking, despite the fact that I'm still 45 pounds overweight. If I can do it, anyone can.