Useful Abbreviations & Terminology (and what it means)

Jem

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People that feel just because diabates is a life-threatening "illness" it should be treated with kid gloves and nobody is allowed to have a laugh. My humour got me through abuse, near death experiences, serious and debilitating illnesses and lifelong pain and deformity - why give up the thing that works??
Somebody was asking for a list to be compiled of the abbreviations we use - and what they all mean, so I thought it would be helpful to add a thread for that purpose.

PLEASE add to the list asap (arf!) because I'm sure my input will not be much use by itself!


BG - blood glucose (this is the measurement of glucose circulating in the blood)
BS - blood sugar (as above)
PP - post prandial (this means a period of time after eating, usually recorded as 2 hours but often 1)
HBA1C - ????? (this refers to the longer term {90 day--3 months} level of glucose in the blood)
Hypo - hypoglyceamia (this means blood sugar level is too low)

Please please add and edit and comment at will ... we must admit it can be confusing for people coming onto the board and half the time I don't know what they are either, so I thought I'd just make a start! If required, I can edit and add to this first post to make it a source of information :)

J/x
 

Stuboy

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Crowds. Being high. Being Hypo.
HbA1c is the scientific shorthand for Glycosylated Hemoglobin.

MDI - Multiple Daily Injections - an insulin regimen adopted by the majority of type 1 diabetics.

Basal - refered to as the slow acting insulin used to cover your bodies own glucose stores.
Bolus - refered to as the fast acting insulin used to cover food, typically carbohydrates, some cover for protein as well.

Pump - Insulin Pump, used as an alternative insulin delivery method to MDI. The pump is connected to you 24/7 and pumps tiny doses of insulin thorought the day, with the ability to give extra doses at meals times and with snacks.
 
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Dennis

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Here's a few more commonly found abbreviations:

CHO Cholesterol
HDL High Density Lipoprotein (the "good" cholesterol)
LDL Low Density Lipoprotein (the "bad" cholesterol)
VLDL Very Low Density Lipoprotein (the "very bad" cholesterol)
TG or Trigs Triglycerides - the main component part of VLDL and a significant cause of strokes and heart attacks
 
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tubolard

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575
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Fasteddie; Richard K Bernstein; William S. Atkins; Rosemary Bloody Conley;
And some more

BP Blood Pressure, usually measured with a sphygmomanometer (just wanted to type the word at least once)
CVD Cardiovascular Disease
ED Erectile Disorder
CTS Carpal Tunnel Syndrome
FS Frozen Shoulder

NSF National Strategic Framework
SHA Strategic Health Authority
PCT Primary Care Trust
NICE National Institute for Clinical Health and Excellence
HCP/HP Health care professional
DSNDiabetic Specialist Nurse
 
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timo2

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Glycemic excursions
Beta cells - Pancreatic cells responsible for the production of insulin, amylin and C-peptide.

Insulin - A hormone which causes most of the body's cells to take up glucose from the blood.
It has profound effects on both carbohydrate and lipid(fat) metabolism and significant
influences on protein and mineral metabolism.

Amylin (Islet Amyloid Polypeptide) - Slows the rate at which digested carbohydrate appears
as glucose in the blood and thus reduces total insulin demand.

C-peptide - An insulin byproduct which is often used to gauge levels of insulin in the body.
C-peptide is believed to be important for the maintenance of vascular(blood vessel) function.

Type 1 (autoimmune) - The most common form of type 1 diabetes. Results from the
destruction or dysfunction of insulin-producing beta cells by the body's own immune system.

Type 1 (idiopathic) - All forms of type 1 which occur without a known cause.

Fulminant type 1 - An idiopathic subtype which has a very rapid onset and no honeymoon period.

Type 1.5 - Latent Autoimmune Diabetes in Adults (LADA), also known as slow onset type 1.

Pancreatogenic diabetes - Diabetes caused by either partial/complete removal of the
pancreas or by the damage resulting from chronic pancreatitis.

Type 2 - The most common form of diabetes. Type 2 diabetes is most often attributed to
insulin resistance and relative insulin deficiency.

Young-onset type 2 - Anyone diagnosed with type 2 under the age of 45 is considered young-
onset. Recent years have seen a rise in the number of people diagnosed well below this age.

MODY - Maturity Onset Diabetes of the Young refers to a number of dominantly inherited, monogenic defects of insulin secretion. There are currently eight different varieties of MODY.

GDM - Gestational Diabetes Mellitus. Resistance to insulin develops in all mothers during
pregnancy. In about 2 to 4 per cent of women this results in temporary diabetes.

Double diabetes - Comprises symptoms of both type 1 and type 2 diabetes. Can result if a
type 1 develops significant insulin resistance or if a type 2 produces no insulin of their own.

Brittle diabetes (labile diabetes) - Most often seen in type 1 diabetics who, due to
various underlying causes, experience rapid and extreme swings in blood sugar levels.

Honeymoon period - A partial remission after a diagnosis of type 1 diabetes, which often
leads to a reduction in insulin requirements while good glycemic control is maintained.

Insulin resistance - Normal amounts of insulin are inadequate to produce a normal insulin
response from fat, muscle and liver cells.

Oxidative stress - The damaging effects resulting from an imbalance between levels of free
radicals and antioxidants. Oxidative stress is believed to contribute toward the vascular complications of diabetes and the progression of beta cell loss seen in type 2 diabetics.

CHO - Carbohydrate (Carbon Hydrogen Oxygen).

Low-carb diet - A proportional reduction of dietary carbohydrate in response to a dysfunctional
carbohydrate metabolism.

G.I - Glycemic index. A G.I value tells you how fast a carbohydrate is turned into blood glucose.
A G.I over 70 is considered high (fast release), a G.I below 55 is considered low (slow release).

G.L - Glycemic load. A G.L value takes into account G.I as well as the total quantity of
carbohydrate contained in a serving. A GL of 20 or more is high, a GL of 10 or less is low.

First-phase insulin response - An immediate release of insulin by the pancreas in response
to a glucose challenge, such as a meal. This response is absent in all diabetics at diagnosis.

Second-phase insulin response - The continued slower release of insulin by the pancreas,
occuring around 20-30 minutes after a meal. Missing in type 1s and impaired in type 2s.

Reactive hypoglycemia - Often due to a blunted or delayed second-phase insulin response.
Insulin is released by the pancreas too late and in too large a quantity.

Glucotoxicity - The damaging effects that prolonged high blood glucose levels have on the
cells in the body which make and use insulin.

Peripheral neuropathy - Damage to the nerves of the peripheral nervous system.

Nephropathy - Damage or disease affecting the kidneys.

Retinopathy - Non-inflammatory damage to the retina of the eye.

Insulin antibodies - An immune response to exogenous(injected) insulin, which can alter the
insulin's action profile and/or potency (immunological insulin resistance).

Insulin analogues - Genetically altered versions of insulin which have characteristics not
available to any naturally occuring insulins. Insulin analogues are not technically insulin,
but are able to perform the same action as human insulin in terms of glycemic control.

Lantus - Long-acting insulin analogue used as a basal(background) insulin. Normally injected
once a day, but dose can be split twice daily.

Levemir - Long-acting insulin analogue used as a basal(background) insulin. Can be used once
daily, but is often required twice daily to provide true basal coverage.

Biphasic insulin - An insulin mixture containing both fast/intermediate acting and slow acting insulin, usually injected twice daily.

GAD (Glutamic Acid Decarboxylase) Antibodies test - GAD enzymes are the target of
autoantibodies in people who are at risk of, or have developed, autoimmune diabetes.

Glucagon - A hormone produced in the alpha cells of the pancreas. Effectively, its action
is counter to that of insulin.

GNG (Gluconeogenesis) - The generation of glucose from non-carbohydrate carbon substrates,
performed chiefly in the liver (hepatic glucose production).

Glycogenolysis - The breaking down of glycogen stores in liver and muscle tissue.

Liver dump - The common term given to glucose production from the liver.

Ketosis - A process in which your body converts fats into energy.

Ketones - Ketone bodies are acids left over as a byproduct of ketosis.

Ketoacidosis - A severe accumulation of keto acids in the blood (usually due to relative insulin deficiency), resulting in acidosis (low blood pH).

Somogyi effect (rebound hyperglycemia) - A high blood sugar(hyperglycemia) which
is as a result of the body overcompensating for a previous low blood sugar(hypoglycemia).
 

Stuboy

Well-Known Member
Messages
451
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Crowds. Being high. Being Hypo.
timo2 said:
CHO - Carbohydrate (Carbon Hydrogen Oxygen).

Dennis said:
Here's a few more commonly found abbreviations:
CHO Cholesterol

I thought CHO was short for Carbohydrate, It's the scientific short hand for carbs isn't it? Just thought i'd clear it up incase anyone gets confused! lol
 

Jem

Well-Known Member
Messages
570
Dislikes
People that feel just because diabates is a life-threatening "illness" it should be treated with kid gloves and nobody is allowed to have a laugh. My humour got me through abuse, near death experiences, serious and debilitating illnesses and lifelong pain and deformity - why give up the thing that works??
chol is generally understood to mean cholesterol
whereas
CHO is generally understood to mean carbohydrate
but I could just be misuderstanding! hah!
 

Administrator

Well-Known Member
Staff Member
Administrator
Messages
1,597
Type of diabetes
Family member
Treatment type
I do not have diabetes
Does anyone mind, Jem in particular, whether I poach this as content for the site?

Regards,

Dan
 

runner22

Newbie
Messages
4
Thank you for posting this information. It is so difficult to try and maneuver through all the terminology when they are using acronyms. I am trying to find out more info because a family member is going through just getting diagnosed.
 

leslie10152

Well-Known Member
Messages
1,110
Type of diabetes
Type 2
Treatment type
Insulin
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Ignorance
This is good information. I would like to collate the information into a print out for newly diagnosed diabetics.
 

lessci

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Messages
1,044
Type of diabetes
Treatment type
Tablets (oral)
LCHF - Low Carbohydrate High Fat - a diet followed by some diabetics
 

leslie10152

Well-Known Member
Messages
1,110
Type of diabetes
Type 2
Treatment type
Insulin
Dislikes
Ignorance
Ex
Beta cells - Pancreatic cells responsible for the production of insulin, amylin and C-peptide.

Insulin - A hormone which causes most of the body's cells to take up glucose from the blood.
It has profound effects on both carbohydrate and lipid(fat) metabolism and significant
influences on protein and mineral metabolism.

Amylin (Islet Amyloid Polypeptide) - Slows the rate at which digested carbohydrate appears
as glucose in the blood and thus reduces total insulin demand.

C-peptide - An insulin byproduct which is often used to gauge levels of insulin in the body.
C-peptide is believed to be important for the maintenance of vascular(blood vessel) function.

Type 1 (autoimmune) - The most common form of type 1 diabetes. Results from the
destruction or dysfunction of insulin-producing beta cells by the body's own immune system.

Type 1 (idiopathic) - All forms of type 1 which occur without a known cause.

Fulminant type 1 - An idiopathic subtype which has a very rapid onset and no honeymoon period.

Type 1.5 - Latent Autoimmune Diabetes in Adults (LADA), also known as slow onset type 1.

Pancreatogenic diabetes - Diabetes caused by either partial/complete removal of the
pancreas or by the damage resulting from chronic pancreatitis.

Type 2 - The most common form of diabetes. Type 2 diabetes is most often attributed to
insulin resistance and relative insulin deficiency.

Young-onset type 2 - Anyone diagnosed with type 2 under the age of 45 is considered young-
onset. Recent years have seen a rise in the number of people diagnosed well below this age.

MODY - Maturity Onset Diabetes of the Young refers to a number of dominantly inherited, monogenic defects of insulin secretion. There are currently eight different varieties of MODY.

GDM - Gestational Diabetes Mellitus. Resistance to insulin develops in all mothers during
pregnancy. In about 2 to 4 per cent of women this results in temporary diabetes.

Double diabetes - Comprises symptoms of both type 1 and type 2 diabetes. Can result if a
type 1 develops significant insulin resistance or if a type 2 produces no insulin of their own.

Brittle diabetes (labile diabetes) - Most often seen in type 1 diabetics who, due to
various underlying causes, experience rapid and extreme swings in blood sugar levels.

Honeymoon period - A partial remission after a diagnosis of type 1 diabetes, which often
leads to a reduction in insulin requirements while good glycemic control is maintained.

Insulin resistance - Normal amounts of insulin are inadequate to produce a normal insulin
response from fat, muscle and liver cells.

Oxidative stress - The damaging effects resulting from an imbalance between levels of free
radicals and antioxidants. Oxidative stress is believed to contribute toward the vascular complications of diabetes and the progression of beta cell loss seen in type 2 diabetics.

CHO - Carbohydrate (Carbon Hydrogen Oxygen).

Low-carb diet - A proportional reduction of dietary carbohydrate in response to a dysfunctional
carbohydrate metabolism.

G.I - Glycemic index. A G.I value tells you how fast a carbohydrate is turned into blood glucose.
A G.I over 70 is considered high (fast release), a G.I below 55 is considered low (slow release).

G.L - Glycemic load. A G.L value takes into account G.I as well as the total quantity of
carbohydrate contained in a serving. A GL of 20 or more is high, a GL of 10 or less is low.

First-phase insulin response - An immediate release of insulin by the pancreas in response
to a glucose challenge, such as a meal. This response is absent in all diabetics at diagnosis.

Second-phase insulin response - The continued slower release of insulin by the pancreas,
occuring around 20-30 minutes after a meal. Missing in type 1s and impaired in type 2s.

Reactive hypoglycemia - Often due to a blunted or delayed second-phase insulin response.
Insulin is released by the pancreas too late and in too large a quantity.

Glucotoxicity - The damaging effects that prolonged high blood glucose levels have on the
cells in the body which make and use insulin.

Peripheral neuropathy - Damage to the nerves of the peripheral nervous system.

Nephropathy - Damage or disease affecting the kidneys.

Retinopathy - Non-inflammatory damage to the retina of the eye.

Insulin antibodies - An immune response to exogenous(injected) insulin, which can alter the
insulin's action profile and/or potency (immunological insulin resistance).

Insulin analogues - Genetically altered versions of insulin which have characteristics not
available to any naturally occuring insulins. Insulin analogues are not technically insulin,
but are able to perform the same action as human insulin in terms of glycemic control.

Lantus - Long-acting insulin analogue used as a basal(background) insulin. Normally injected
once a day, but dose can be split twice daily.

Levemir - Long-acting insulin analogue used as a basal(background) insulin. Can be used once
daily, but is often required twice daily to provide true basal coverage.

Biphasic insulin - An insulin mixture containing both fast/intermediate acting and slow acting insulin, usually injected twice daily.

GAD (Glutamic Acid Decarboxylase) Antibodies test - GAD enzymes are the target of
autoantibodies in people who are at risk of, or have developed, autoimmune diabetes.

Glucagon - A hormone produced in the alpha cells of the pancreas. Effectively, its action
is counter to that of insulin.

GNG (Gluconeogenesis) - The generation of glucose from non-carbohydrate carbon substrates,
performed chiefly in the liver (hepatic glucose production).

Glycogenolysis - The breaking down of glycogen stores in liver and muscle tissue.

Liver dump - The common term given to glucose production from the liver.

Ketosis - A process in which your body converts fats into energy.

Ketones - Ketone bodies are acids left over as a byproduct of ketosis.

Ketoacidosis - A severe accumulation of keto acids in the blood (usually due to relative insulin deficiency), resulting in acidosis (low blood pH).

Somogyi effect (rebound hyperglycemia) - A high blood sugar(hyperglycemia) which
is as a result of the body overcompensating for a previous low blood sugar(hypoglycemia).
Exellent!