The metabolism of an individual with type 2 diabetes is varied in different organs and at different stages of the condition, research has identified.

Academics from Uppsala University have found that proteins in people with type 2 diabetes can be different depending on the severity of the condition and which organ the proteins are in.

According to the scientists, the most common differences in people with the condition are insufficient secretion of insulin and reduced sensitivity to insulin in different organs

During the study, the team of researchers analysed the proteins of people with type 2 diabetes, prediabetes and no diabetes to assess the number of disturbances in metabolic pathways.

First author Professor Claes Wadelius said: “We detected many protein levels that were either higher or lower than normal in tissues from people at different stages of disease.

“People with prediabetes displayed major alterations that are associated with inflammation, coagulation and the immune system in the pancreatic islets.”

Professor Wadelius added: “In fully developed type 2 diabetes there were more widespread abnormalities, for example in lipid and glucose metabolism and in energy production in the liver, muscle and fat.”

The scientists measured thousands of proteins from different organs by taking tissue samples from various donors with different health statuses.

Fellow author Dr Klev Diamanti said: “The techniques for measuring proteins have evolved rapidly in recent years and our colleagues at Copenhagen University who participated in the study are world leaders in the field.”

Jan Eriksson, Clinical Diabetologist, said: “Our results may also support the development of simple tests that can identify people at high risk of diabetes and its complications, and also guide which type of intervention is best for the individual.”

The study has been published in the journal Cell Reports Medicine.

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