Diabetes can become serious in the short term if blood sugar levels become either too high or too low. The following information details what to do in an emergency.
This covers low blood sugar (hypoglycemia), very high blood sugar (diabetic ketoacidosis) and what to do if you are left without your diabetes medication and/or supplies.
What counts as a diabetic emergency?
It can be a difficult area sometimes to know what counts as a genuine emergency.
News reports in recent years have highlighted that a significant number of ‘999’ ambulance call-outs have not been necessary - for example to treat mild hypoglycemia which, in some cases, has been successfully treated befor e the ambulance has arrived.
However, this isn’t to say that hypoglycemia is not dangerous.
Situations involving fitting, vomiting and unconsciousness can be serious, and especially if no-one is present who can confidently treat the situation.
When should I call an ambulance?
An ambulance will be needed if someone has either very high or very low blood sugar levels and neither they nor anyone around is confidently able to treat them.
Hypoglycemia can become dangerous if it is not treated quickly, particularly if it is a result of an insulin overdose.
Severe hypoglycemia is generally recognised as hypoglycemia involving:
- Convulsions (fitting)
Another symptom of severe hypoglycemia can be locking of the jaw, which can make treating hypoglycemia impossible without the aid of a glucagon injection.
In this situation, glucagon can be administered by injection.
When using glucagon, check it is in date, and follow the instructions in the glucagon kit carefully. If you are unsure about using the kit, and nobody is present who is, call for an ambulance.
- Treating non-severe hypoglycaemia
- To prevent hypoglycemia developing into a more serious situation, make sure you have hypo treatments, such as the HypoWallet, to hand.
Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA)
Diabetic ketoacidosis is a serious condition which develops if blood glucose levels become very high.
The symptoms include vomiting and a laboured form of breathing known as kussmaul breathing, which may be identified by gasping breaths. If someone is going through DKA, it is often possible to detect ketones on the breath, which can be similar to a fruity smell or similar to nail polish.
If diabetic ketoacidosis is suspected and the person is either incoherent or unable to help him or herself, call 999.
Whilst the ambulance is coming
Ensure the person is able to breathe and try to stay with them in case their situation should get worse. If you can, test their blood sugar to verify whether they have high or low blood glucose levels.
Diabetes emergency ID
If an emergency situation is developing, it’s important the people around you know that you have diabetes to help them to be able to help you.
Wearing emergency identification will help people, including paramedics, to recognise that you have diabetes should you need emergency care.
Emergencies at school, college or work
To minimise the chance of a serious emergency at work, school or university, it’s best to ensure the people around you are aware you have diabetes, what dangers could potential happen and how to deal with any such situation should it develop.
Particularly at work, some people may be worried about disclosing their diabetes to their employer. In terms of health, it’s best to do so.
Emergencies on holiday
To have the best chance of dealing with diabetes emergencies on holiday, make sure the person with diabetes has travel insurance which includes cover for diabetes as a long term illness.
It helps to be prepared. Ask your travel agent for advice on emergency medical care in your destination or resort.
It may be advisable to research how to pronounce key words and phrases related to diabetes in the country you will be travelling to. If you do have to use another language to communicate, keep it as simple as possible, unless you are fluent yourself.
- More on diabetes and travel emergencies
Running out of diabetes medication or supplies
Even for the better prepared, there can be times when we need emergency medication or supplies.
If you need medication and supplies right away you will need to get an emergency prescription.
If your surgery/medical centre is open, your GP should be able to write out a prescription.
You will need to get to take the prescription to either a pharmacy that has the medication (such as insulin) or supplies or it may be possible to get the medication/supplies from a hospital.
If your need for medication and/or supplies is needed whilst your surgery is closed, contact your surgery’s out of hours service or contact NHS Direct (0845 4647).
- If you are away from home, you will need to find out who will be able to write out an emergency prescription. NHS Direct (0845 4647) or the nearest hospital may be able to help.