Read about what diabetes insipidus is, how it affects the body, the different forms of diabetes insipidus, and how it is diagnosed.
What are the symptoms of diabetes insipidus?
Diabetes Insipidus leads to frequent urination, and this is the most common and clear symptom. Further symptoms include:
- Frequent urination
- Unusual thirst
Children suffering from the condition may become irritable or listless, with fever and vomiting also possible.
How does diabetes insipidus compare with diabetes mellitus?
Diabetes insipidus and diabetes mellitus should not be confused. Mellitus occurs due to insulin deficiency or insulin resistance and subsequent high blood glucose levels.
The two forms of diabetes are unrelated, and diabetes mellitus is far more common. Diabetes insipidus is a completely different type of illness.
How does DI occur?
Diabetes insipidus occurs when the complex system that regulates the amount and type of fluid within your body is disrupted.
The system is extremely precise and fluid regulation has a massive impact on health, keeping the fluids balanced by governing thirst, and the kidneys ticking over using ADH (antidiuretic hormone).
This is what can be disrupted in clinically serious DI.
Are there different forms of DI?
There are a number of different types of DI:
- Central DI occurs when the pituitary gland is damaged resulting in ADH
deficiency. It is treated with desmopressin, a synthetic hormone.
- Nephrogenic DI occurs due to drug impairment of ADH or by a chronicdisorder such as polycystic kidney disease or kidney failure. The cause can be quite elusive, and a different type of drug called indomethacin is usually used to treat it.
- Dipsogenic DI is another type of disease, usually based on the poo functioning
of the thirst mechanism. When this occurs, the patient becomes
unusually thirsty. Desmopressin can not be used to treat this condition.
- Gestational DI is associated with pregnancy, and occurs when an enzyme created by the placenta destroys ADH in the mother.
How is diabetes insipidus diagnosed?
DI diagnosis can be complicated, because it shares many symptoms with diabetes mellitus. Diabetes mellitus is far more common, and healthcare officials or physicians will be more inclined to give a DM diagnosis.
However, simple testing makes the diagnosis clear, and a series of tests can determine exactly which type of DI the patient is suffering from.
Tests such as urinalysis, fluid deprivation, and even MRI scans are used.